2. Methods

How we Conducted our Research

General Research Methods:
This section talks about what were the methods taught to us.

To collect the information that we need, we can draw upon the below sources for our research:
  • Interviews (Primary Source)
    • They are a good way of getting first hand information about our topic, although our interviewees (and interviewers!) many tend to be nervous and give mediocre answers. Interview Questions will also need to be carefully crafted in order to obtain the type of answer we need for our research.
  • Surveys (Primary Source)
    • Great way of finding out the opinions of others, but we run the risk of people not taking it seriously or bothering them by taking up their time. Surveys deal with what the general population knows. Thus, we might not get the specific information that we need. 
  • The Internet (Secondary Source)
    • A convenient and quick way of getting second hand information, which will be used to draw conclusions and formulate interview and survey questions. May be unreliable and inaccurate, however. 
  • Books (Secondary Source)
    • A surefire, yet difficult and slow to find, way to get what we need. It is a secondary method of getting information, so it is subjected to biases but conclusions are more easily drawn and much more credible.

As we research, we are also bound to encounter a lot of information that is irrelevant. How are we going to fish out the information that we need from the vast ocean of data we are searching through?

Research Methodology:
Drawing proper conclusions from the research materials we have gotten.

First, research and analyse secondary sources (e.g books, articles from the internet) to gather evidence that hypotheses are true.
Secondly, use primary sources (e.g interviews and surveys) to support evidence found while researching into secondary sources.

How will we analyse?
Here is the step-by-step process we will use.
(Thanks to Mr. Lim for teaching this mode of research.)
  • Step 1:
    • Look at the structure of the text and identify the below three elements for easier understanding.
      • Table of Contents
      • Abstract
      • Headings and sub-headings
    • If the information is relevant, read it in-depth to find specific research details.
    • Identify relevant material that we may use.
  • Step 2:
    • Evaluation and critique of the source and content of the literature.
    • Take in account date it was published.
    • Use the 3C’s
      • Credibility 
      • Consistency
      • Corroboration
    • Double check whether the information helps us.
  • Step 3:
    • Summarize information.
      • Main points, theories and key issues clearly indicated.
      • What is the author's stated or implied purpose?
      • What conclusions has the author made?
      • What points support the conclusions?
    • Keep track of all quotes, page references and bibliographical information
    • Note the way the author has used the original material. 
  • Step 4:
    • Analyze information
    • Identify relationships and links in the research literature. 
    • Note similarities and differences between various author’s research designs and conclusions.

Application 
How are we going to apply these methods into our own research?

Sources to be Used:

The Internet
This source is readily available to us, since we all have access to wi-fi and each own a laptop. It will also be easier to gather the data and compile it, rather than using books. It will also enable us to assign research to each individual as homework and then come together and discuss on what we have found out.  Whereas for books, we will need to arrange a time and place to meet together. This will be difficult as all of our schedules are different and sometimes clash with each other. 

Interviews
As mentioned before, interviews are a good way of obtaining first hand information on a topic and is easy to validate as we need only to check the background of the person we are interviewing. Interviews however are exclusive, meaning we can only interview specific people. This means we will have to start early on deciding whom we want to interview and when. 

When we carry out this research, we will use the research method taught to us by Mr. Lim. 

What will the sources by used for?

As mentioned earlier, secondary sources, the Internet in this case, will be used to gather evidence that will support our hypotheses. In our case, that has already been done in our research justification. 

Therefore, we will use the Internet to provide a foundation for us so that when we carry out our interviews, we are able to better understand and use the information provided for us. The internet will also be used for further research into smaller, more specific details that we will need for our conclusion.

As for the interviews, they will be used to support our hypotheses (see research justification) as well as draw a conclusion from

Division of Labour
It won’t only be one person doing the research. We’re a team. We’ll split the workload.

Each of us have been assigned a country. We will research on:
  • What each country has done to improve its health care.
  • What kind of health care policies their governments have used to make healthcare cheaper.
  • What innovative ways they (or their citizens) have come up with to make health care affordable to lower-income families.
  • How countries have been dealing with the increasing influx of patients and the reducing number of doctors. 

This is what country each team member will be researching on.
  • Nikisha - India
  • Ray - United States
  • Javier - Singapore
  • Sean - Thailand
We have also decided who we shall interview. Here they are!
  • Mr. Han Sheng Chia
    • Mr. Chia is part of the executive team of MED International, being its Co-Executive Director. Their mission is to increase the availability of medical equipment for patients in resource poor hospitals. Want to know what that exactly means? Click on the link below to view their official website and the full team.
    • What's so cool about him?
      • We actually met him once! He came to our school last year to give a talk about what he was doing at MED International. Now we are getting to interview him. How neat is that!
  • Professor M. Ramesh
    • Mr. Ramesh is a professor and editor at Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. He has served as: 
      • Founding Head of the Department of Asian and Policy Studies and Chair Professor of Governance and Public Policy at the Hong Kong Institute of Education; 
      • Professor of Social Policy at the University of Hong Kong; and
      • Chair of the Department of Government and International Relations at the University of Sydney. 
      • He has also held teaching positions at the University of New England and Victoria University of Wellington. 
    • What's so cool about him?
      • One of his co-authored textbooks, "Studying Public Policy", has been translated into over a dozen languages and is used throughout the world. 
      • His books and journal articles on social policy in Asia are the standard starting points for research on the subject. 
      • He has also published extensively in reputed international journals.
    • Wow. To find out more about him, view his profile by clicking the link below:
  • Mr. Azad Singh Bali
    • Mr. Bali is a student of Professor M Ramesh and is currently working on his Ph.D thesis paper, which is about the "Economics of Health Care". 
    • What's so cool about him?
      • When you get economics and health care together, you get a really deep subject. We need to interview him to get the details and understand on how the economy is related to health care and they're relationship with one another.
    • To find out more about him, view his profile by clicking the link below:
Research Schedule:

T1
TASK TO BE COMPLETED
REMARKS
W6
  1. Meetup on Tuesday at 9.30 p.m
    1. Completion of Padlet
  2. Start sourcing Online Articles and Books for research.
    1. 2 articles and one book per team member.
  3. Deciding which article and books to use.
    1. Meet up online for discussion on Friday, 9.30 p.m.
    2. Decide which 4 out of 8 articles to use.
    3. Decide which 2 out of the 4 books to use.
  4. Meeting on Saturday, 10 a.m to go to Clementi Library to source books.
    1. Analyzing the selected books.
  5. Analyzing the selected articles.
    1. Each person assigned one article to analyze.
    2. Post findings on blog.
Due by Week 7, Tuesday.  

W7
  1. Meetup Tuesday night at 9.30 p.m
    1. Discussing analysis of data
    2. Starting on Conclusions

W8
Level Test 1

W9
  1. Meetup Tuesday night at 9.30 p.m
    1. Finish up Conclusions
    2. Start Planning Oral presentation

W10
  1. Filming of Oral Presentation
    1. (Exact date to be confirmed later on)



T2
TASK TO BE COMPLETED
REMARKS
W1
  1. Filming of Oral Presentation
    1. (Exact date to be confirmed later on)

W2
  1. Oral Presentation
  2. Submission of Research Paper
    1. Final touch ups before submission.

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